Apoptosis

Definition

  • in line with the body's metabolic and homeostasis plan

    for the defense and prevention of genetic mutations or viral attacks,which endanger the  survival of the organism

  • Apoptosis is a selective mechanism subjected to a regulatory plan of survival and death factors

    When DNA damage occurs,the factors are activated by the environment surrounding the damaged cell,as information from other nearby cells,which they receive from the damaged cell,the information needed to prepare the rescue plan.The signaling of survival factors reach the damaged cell,activating the genetic resident control factor program.In DNA transcriptional and regulatory factors attempt rescue,seeking to repair the damage.Programmed cell death factors are activated via caspases,which are proteins that form a scaffold at the level of the cytosolic plasma membrane,and they act by activating a proteolytic cascade regulated by phosphorylations.Mitochondrial cytochrome c,released into cytosol,participates in activation of caspases.

  • Apoptosis may be triggered by an external signal

    Phosphatidylserine moves from the position inherent in the cytosolic plasma membrane,going outside on the extracellular plasma membrane,and it is formed as if it were a receptor with external signaling factor on the cell in view of the macrophages,which intercept the signal positioning themselves on the cell,then incorporate it and degrade it in their body.


Main causes leading to programmed cell death

  • Oxidative stress

    caused by signaling factors that come from the external environment(magnetic radiation,reactive chemical compounds and gases).

  • Reactive factors

    such as Ros(highly reactive products of the partial reduction of O2,superoxide *O-2,minor byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation)

  • Viral infections or stress

    such as heat shock


Bioenergetic signaling mechanism of apoptosis

  • Signaling is information in the form of energy in living beings

    by animating metabolic cycles and therefore matter.

    Through chemical-biological evolution,the cell has managed to develop a constitutive plan,animated by complex energy processes,where matter is transformed through energy by regulating and making the metabolic systems of living beings function.Matter to be animated by energy,there must be an internal order in living beings,which needs an energy supply to make it work. This is a thermodynamic plane,which must ensure sufficient availability of energy,which is supplied and then extracted from the matter that animates the surrounding Cosmos.

     

  • Maintaining a certain type of order in the living organism

    that keeps it away from a equilibrium that can bring it to a steady state,responsible for the decay of the matter.


Apoptosis is made necessary

  • when damage in DNA jeopardizes a certain type of order

    consisting of a stationary-dynamic plane,which keeps away from the dynamic order of reactions

  • The road to old age is littered

    with a constant accumulation of mutations in the DNA,which the subsequent statistical increase in disease and cell senescence,directly proportional to the errors and damages that accumulate in the DNA or inside the macromolecules,regulated by biosynthesis.


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